Modulus is the force required to stretch a defined specimen of rubber to a given percent
elongation. Most often, modulus is reported at 300% elongation (four times the original length). This can also be viewed as the resistance to a given elongating force. For an uncompounded
elastomer, elongation is primarily a function of stretching and disentangling
the randomly oriented polymer chains and breaking the weak chain-chain
attractions. Vulcanized, but unfilled, elastomers, for example, more strongly
resist elongation because the sulfur crosslinks must be stretched and broken
to allow chain extension and separation.
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